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Education System of Romania


INSTITUTION TYPES & CREDENTIALS

Types of higher education institutions:

Universitate (University)

Academie (Academy)

Colegiu (College)

School leaving and higher education credentials:

Diplomă de Bacalaureat

Diplomă de Absolvire

Diplomă de Arhitect

Diplomă de Inginer

Diplomă de Licenţă

Diplomă de Master

Diplomă de Studii Post-Universitare de Specializare

Diplomă de Studii Aprofundate

Diplomă de Doctor

STRUCTURE OF EDUCATION SYSTEM

Pre-higher education:

Duration of compulsory education:

Age of entry: 6

Age of exit: 16

Structure of school system:

Primary

Type of school providing this education: Şcoala Primară

Length of program in years: 4

Age level from: 6 to: 10

Lower Secondary

Type of school providing this education: Gimnaziu+ Lower cycle of high school or Gimnaziu+ "arts and trade schools" (vocational) - Grades 5 to 10

Length of program in years: 6

Age level from: 10 to: 16

Certificate/diploma awarded: Certificat de Capacitate

Upper Secondary

Type of school providing this education: Upper cycle of high school, Grades 11-12 or 13

Length of program in years: 3

Age level from: 16 to: 19

Certificate/diploma awarded: Diploma de Bacalaureat

Vocational

Type of school providing this education: Şcoala Profesională

Length of program in years: 2

Age level from: 15 to: 17

Certificate/diploma awarded: Certificat de Absolvire

Vocational

Type of school providing this education: Liceu de Specialitate

Length of program in years: 4

Age level from: 15 to: 19

Certificate/diploma awarded: Diploma de Bacalaureat + (Atestat) de (Vocational Certificate)

Specialized Tech./Voc.

Type of school providing this education: Şcoala Post-Liceală

Length of program in years: 3

Age level from: 19 to: 22

Certificate/diploma awarded: Diploma de Absolvire a şcolii Post-Liceale de Specialitate

School education:

Primary education lasts for four years. Secondary education consists in: 1) lower secondary school education organized in Gymnaziu for grades 5 to 8 and Ciclul inferior al liceului (lower cycle of highschool) or Arts and trades schools (vocational) for grades 9 and 10. 2) upper secondary school education organized in Ciclul superior al liceului for grades 11, 12 and 13 followed, if necessary, by an additional high school year for those who want to move from vocational training (grade 10) to upper secondary school education. High school education (lower cycle of high school and upper secondary school education) offers three different orientations (academic,  technological, specialization).

Higher education:

Higher education in Romania is offered in both public and private higher education institutions. These include universities, academies and colleges organized in specialized departments. In accordance with its objectives, university education comprises: short university education offered by university colleges (3 years), long university education (4 to 6 years) and postgraduate university education (1 to 2 years). Public higher education institutions are coordinated by the Ministry of Education and Research. University autonomy is fully guaranteed. Private higher education is an alternative to public education. It is subject to an accreditation process. Accredited private institutions may obtain state support.

Main laws/decrees governing higher education:

Decree: Government Decision no 37/1999 concerning doctoral studies Year: 1999

Decree: Law no. 287/2004 on University Consortium Year: 2004

Decree: Law no. 88/1993 on Accreditation of H. Ed. Institutions & Recognition of Diplomas modified 144/1999 Year: 1999

Concerns: All higher education institutions

Decree: Law on Education no. 84/1995 modified 151/1999 Year: 1999

Concerns: All higher education institutions

Academic year:

Classes from: Oct to: Jun

Long vacation from: 15 Jul to: 1 Oct

Languages of instruction: Romanian

Stages of studies:

 

University level studies:

University level first stage: Diplomă de Absolvire; Diplomă de Licenţă:

The first stage of university-level study comprises short-term (3 years) or long-term diplomas (4 to 6 years, according to the field of study).

University level second stage: Diplomă de Studii Aprofundate; Master; Specialization:

The second stage is composed of diplomas awarded after one to two years of studies which may include  research work.

University level third stage: Doctoral studies:

The Doctorate in Romania is the highest postgraduate stage of professional specialization and lasts for 4 - 6 years. There is only one type of Doctorate. Doctoral studies can be carried out either in full-time courses (up to four years) or in extra-mural courses (up to six years). Extra-mural courses can also be offered in main foreign languages. Candidates who have passed the examination for the Doctor's Degree (Doctorate) are awarded the Diploma de Doctor în Stiinţe.

Teacher education:

Training of pre-primary and primary/basic school teachers

Pre-primary teachers and primary school teachers are trained in pedogogical high schools.

Training of secondary school teachers

Secondary-school teachers for lower secondary education need a degree from short term higher education and Secondary-school teachers for upper secondary a degree from long term higher education. All the above mentioned categories of teachers must have completed the pedagogical module (during university courses or at least 5 years after graduation) and the special training programmes corresponding to each qualification.

Training of higher education teachers

Higher education teachers (preparatori, lectori asistenţi, lectori conferentiari, profesori asociaţi, profesori, şi profesori consultanţi) are appointed on a competitive basis from among graduates of higher education institutions who have demonstrated outstanding teaching and research qualities. Most candidates seeking positions as teachers in higher education are engaged in or have completed doctoral studies. Possession of a Doctor's Degree is compulsory for senior appointments such as lector, confentiari and profesori. Asistenti should be Ph.D. candidates.

Non-traditional studies:

Distance higher education

A National Centre for Open Distance Education has been created in all universities.

Lifelong higher education

The Law 375/2002 approving the Governmental Ordinance 129/2000 stipulates that private and public institutions can provide adult vocational training if accredited following a special methodology. The National Council for Adult Vocational Training constituted by Law 132/1999 is composed of representatives from the Ministry of Labour, Social Solidarity and Family, the Ministry of Education and Research, national employers' associations and union organizations.

NATIONAL BODIES

Administration & co-ordination:

Responsible authorities:

Ministry of Education and Research

Head: Miclea Mircea, Minister

Administrative officer: Paloma Petrescu, State Secretary, Pre-university Education

28-30, General Berthelot Street
Sector 1
010174 Bucharest
Romania

Tel: +40 (21) 310 4320

EMail: mirceamiclea@mec.edu.ro

WWW: http://www.edu.ro

Role of governing body: Management of the national system of education and research (cf. Decision 223/2005 on the organization and functioning of the Ministry).

Romanian Council of Rectors

Head: Ecaterina Andronescu, President

Splaiul Independentei 313
060042 Bucharest
Romania

Tel: +40(21) 410 0391

Fax: +40(21) 411 5365

EMail: e_andronescu@rectorat.pub.ro

WWW: http://www.pub.ro

NCAA - National Council for Academic Assessment and Accreditation

Head: Ioan Mikailescu, President

Strada Schitu Măgureanu 1
050025 Bucharest
Romania

Tel: +40(21) 206 7600

Fax: +40(21) 312 7135

EMail: mail@cneaa.ro

WWW: http://www.cneaa.ro

Role of governing body: The NCAA is established by Law 88/1994 to evaluate every study programme, faculty and institution from the national higher education area. There are specific standards on 5 indicators to evaluate: teaching staff, teaching plan with study curricula, scientific research, infrastructure, administrative and financial activity. All new programmes must be evaluated by NCAA and obtain the provisional operation licence before they start academic activities. Every study programme must be re-evaluated for accreditation  three years after a study cycle in provisional operation. NCAA also evaluates the accredited study programmes every 5 years.

ADMISSIONS TO HIGHER EDUCATION

Admission to non university higher education studies

Name of secondary school credential required: Diplomă de Bacalaureat

For entry to: All post-secondary schools

Admission to university-level studies

Name of secondary school credential required: Diplomă de Bacalaureat

Minimum score/requirement: 6

For entry to: University

Foreign students admission

Definition of foreign student: A foreign student is a student who does not have Romanian citizenship.

Admission requirements: Foreign students must hold the Baccalaureate or an equivalent qualification. The diploma  must be authentified in the country of origin.

Entry regulations: Students must hold a visa which is granted on presentation of the written confirmation of their admission.

Health requirements: Health visa.

Language requirements: Usually, students follow a preparatory course in Romanian. Also accredited programmes in foreign languages.

Application procedures:

Apply to national body for entry to: All types of institutions and programmes.

Apply to:

Department for International Relations, Ministry of Education and Research

12, Spiru Haret
Bucharest
Romania

Tel: +40(1) 313 1013

Fax: +40(1) 312 6614

Recognition of studies & qualifications:

Studies pursued in home country (System of recognition/accreditation): All courses of studies and credentials obtained from a Romanian State accredited higher education institution are recognized by the State.

Studies pursued in foreign countries (bodies dealing with recognition of foreign credentials):

National Centre of Diploma Recognition, Ministry of Education

Head: Daniela Gîrbea, Director

30 General Berthelot Street
70738 Bucharest
Romania

Tel: +40(21) 313 2677

Fax: +40(21) 313 2677

EMail: girbea@mec.edu.ro

Deals with credential recognition for entry to: University and Profession

Services provided & students dealt with: http://www.edu.ro/cnred.htm

Special provisions for recognition:

For access to university level studies: For recognition purposes, the following data are taken into consideration: ECTS, level of the diploma, diploma supplement.

Multilateral agreements concerning recognition of foreign studies

Name of agreement: UNESCO and Council of Europe Convention on the Recognition of Qualifications concerning Higher Education in the Europe Region

References to further information on foreign student admissions and recognition of studies

Title: Study in Romania: A guide for foreigners (English, French) I and II

Author: Ministry of National Education

Year of publication: 2000

STUDENT LIFE

Main student services at national level

Agenţia Socială a Studenţilor

Calea Plevnei nr. 61, etaj. 1, sector 1
Bucharest
Romania

Tel: +40(21) 315 7165

EMail: office@agentiastudentilor.ro

WWW: http://www.agentiastudentilor.ro

Category of services provided: Social and welfare services

Services available to foreign Students: Yes

Health/social provisions

Social security for home students: Yes

Social security for foreign students: Yes

Special student travel fares:

By road: Yes

By rail: Yes

By air: No

Available to foreign students: No

Student expenses and financial aid

Student costs:

Home students tuition fees: Minimum: 16081000 (Leu)

Maximum: 86419000 (Leu)

Foreign students tuition fees: Minimum: 3200 (US Dollar)

Maximum: 7600 (US Dollar)

Type of financial aid available:

Scholarships/grants/fellowships:

Higher vocational/technical studies:

Home: Yes

Foreign: Yes

First Degree studies:

Home: Yes

Foreign: Yes

Advanced/doctoral studies:

Home: Yes

Foreign: Yes

Loans:

Higher vocational/technical studies:

Home: Yes

Foreign: Yes

First degree studies:

Home: Yes

Foreign: Yes

Advanced/doctoral studies:

Home: Yes

Foreign: Yes

Bodies providing information on student financial aid:

General Directorate for Higher Education, Ministry of Education and Research

30 General Berthelot Street
70738 Bucharest
Romania

Tel: +40(21) 315 7430 int. 325

Fax: +40(21) 312 2652

INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION & EXCHANGES

Principal national bodies responsible for dealing with international cooperation and exchanges in higher education:

Department for International Relations, Ministry of Education and Research

30 General Berthelot Street
70738 Bucharest
Romania

Tel: +40(21) 310 4319

Fax: +40(21) 312 6614

WWW: http://www.edu.ro

Participation of country in multilateral or bilateral higher education programmes

Name of exchange programme: CEEPUS

Name of exchange programme: COPERNICUS

Name of exchange programme: EURECA

Name of exchange programme: LEONARDO

Name of exchange programme: PECO

Name of exchange programme: PHARE

Name of exchange programme: SOCRATES

Name of exchange programme: TEMPUS

Name of exchange programme: YOUTH FOR EUROPE

GRADING SYSTEM

Usual grading system in secondary school

Full Description: A 10-point grading system is used in upper secondary school: 10 - 1.

Highest on scale: 10

Pass/fail level: 5

Lowest on scale: 1

Main grading system used by higher education institutions

Full Description: A 10-point grading system is used in the higher education system: 10 -1.

Highest on scale: 10

Pass/fail level: 5

Lowest on scale: 1

Other main grading systems

A system of transferable credits (ECTS) has been introduced for the main universities of Romania.

NOTES ON HIGHER EDUCATION SYSTEM

Data for academic year: 2004-2005

Source: National Centre for Recognition and Equivalence of Diplomas, Ministry of Education and Research, Bucharest, 2005

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