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Education System of Mexico


INSTITUTION TYPES & CREDENTIALS

Types of higher education institutions:

Universidades Federales y Estatales (Federal and State Universities)

Universidad Tecnológica (Technological University)

Universidad Politécnica (Polytechnical Universty)

Universidad Intercultural y Bilingüe (Intercultural Bilingual University)

Centros Públicos de Investigación (Public Research Centres)

Instituciones Particulares (Special Institutions)

Instituto Tecnológico (Technological Institute)

Escuela Normal (Teacher Training College)

School leaving and higher education credentials:

Bachillerato Tecnológico

Bachillerato

Diploma

Técnico

Técnico Superior Universitario

Profesor/Maestro

Licenciatura

Professional Title

Especialización

Maestría

Doctorado

STRUCTURE OF EDUCATION SYSTEM

Pre-higher education:

Duration of compulsory education:

Age of entry: 6

Age of exit: 15

Structure of school system:

Primary

Type of school providing this education: Escuela Primaria

Length of program in years: 6

Age level from: 6 to: 12

Certificate/diploma awarded: Certificado de Primaria

General Secondary

Type of school providing this education: Secundaria General

Length of program in years: 3

Age level from: 12 to: 16

Certificate/diploma awarded: Certificado de Secundaria General

Technical Secondary

Type of school providing this education: Telesecundaria, Secundaria técnica

Length of program in years: 3

Age level from: 12 to: 15

Certificate/diploma awarded: Certificado de Secundaria

Higher Secondary

Type of school providing this education: Educación media superior

Length of program in years: 3

Age level from: 16 to: 19

Certificate/diploma awarded: Certificado de Bachillerato general, Bachillerato tecnológico, Educación profesional técnica

Specialized Secondary

Type of school providing this education: Secundaria Para Trabajadores

Length of program in years: 3

Certificate/diploma awarded: Certificado de Secundaria

Specialized Secondary

Type of school providing this education: Para adultos

Length of program in years: 3

Certificate/diploma awarded: Certificado or Diploma

Polytechnical

Type of school providing this education: Capacitación para el Trabajo

Certificate/diploma awarded: Certificado or Diploma

School education:

Education is compulsory from 6 to 15 years of age. The third year of pre-school education (age 5) is planned to become compulsory. Primary education lasts for six years leading to the Certificado de Primaria. Secondary education is divided into: general secondary, secondary education for workers, tele-secondary education, technical secondary and open education. Secondary education lasts for three years from ages 13 to 15 and is offered to pupils who have completed primary education. Secondary education for workers is offered to pupils of 15 and more who have completed primary education. Secondary education lasts for three years and leads to the Bachillerato general or the Bachillerato tecnológico.

Higher education:

The higher education system is made up of 1,892 institutions which, being autonomous or having received official recognition by federal or state authorities, are part of the so called National Education System. Of those, 713 are public and 1,179 are private institutions with different profiles. As described below, the higher education institutions can be classified in the following subsets. PUBLIC FEDERAL INSTITUTIONS: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana (UAM), Universidad Pedagógica Nacional (UPN) and Instituto Politécnico Nacional (IPN) make up this subset. UPN and IPN are part of the Ministry of Public Education of the Federal Government. All four institutions carry out teaching, research and extension services. PUBLIC STATE UNIVERSITIES: This subset integrates 46 institutions (only the main campuses are counted), distributed over the 31 states that make up the Federal Republic. Of them, 78% are autonomous institutions, and 50% also provide education at the upper secondary level. The state public universities are, as opposed to the federal institutions, part of the local state governments and, like them, carry out teaching, research and extension services. PUBLIC TECHNOLOGICAL INSTITUTES: This subsystem comprises 211 institutes and 6 specialized centers. Of them, 110 are federal institutions scattered over the 31 states, and 107 are state technological institutes located in 22 states. Classified by vocation and orientation, 184 are related to industry, 20 to agriculture and livestock, 6 to marine science and one to forestry. The National Centre for Research and Technological Development, the Interdisciplinary Centre for Research and Teaching in Technical Education and 4 regional Centres for the Enhancement and Development of Equipment comprise the 6 specialized centres. This institutions are coordinated by the Ministry of Public Education through the Undersecretary of Higher Education. PUBLIC TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITIES: This subsystem comprises 60 institutions in 26 states offering two-year intensive higher education leading to an associate degree. The Technological Universities are created on the Federal government's initiative but as part of the local state governments and they carry out teaching, applied research as well as externsion and technological services. Growth of the public system has been mainly concentrated on this type of universities. PUBLIC POLYTECHNICAL UNIVERSITIES: Only recently established by a federal government's initiative (2002), this subsystem has 18 local state-created universities distributed in 21 states, whose characteristic is the relevance of their provision to the aim of increasing the accessibility to public higher education institutions. PUBLIC INTERCULTURAL BILINGUAL UNIVERSITIES: Also created at the Federal Government's initiative, this subset comprises 4 local state created universities in Chiapas, Mexico, Guerrero and Tabasco (all states with a high density of indigenous populations). It must be noted that 20% of their students are not indigenous. When in full operation, each intercultural university will have two to three thousands students. TEACHER TRAINING COLLEGES: Distributed all over the Republic, they include 433 institutions , 249 of which are public. Some of them are part of the Ministry of Public Education and others have been created by the local state authorities. In both, the syllabus is defined by the Federal government and corresponds to licenciatura programmes. PRIVATE INSTITUTIONS: They include 995 institutions in all states from universities to colleges. They are mainly non denominational, although a few very prestigious ones are. Most of them are non-profit organizations. PUBLIC RESEARCH CENTRES: 27 Research Centres distributed all over the country carry out mainly R&D activities but are also responsible for the provision of graduate research oriented programmes, although some also offer Licenciaturas. This subset is coordinated by the National Council for Science and Technology (CONACYT) which establishes the guidelines and allocates the funds for their operation. OTHER: There are other public higher education institutions, autonomous or not, which are not included in the afore mentioned subsets either because they are coordinated by other Ministries than the Ministry of Public Education or because they have been created by the local state governments and operate without the participation of or the allocation of funds by the Ministry of Public Education. Some are very prestigious (e.g. Colegio de México, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados or Universidad Chapingo).

Main laws/decrees governing higher education:

Decree: Acuerdos 93, 243, 279, 288 y 328 de la Secretaría de Educación Pública

Concerns: Higher Education

Decree: Constitución Politica de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos (Art. 3)

Concerns: Political constitution of the United States of Mexico

Decree: Ley General de Educación Year: 1993

Concerns: Education system (all levels)

Decree: Ley para la Coordinación de la Educación Superior Year: 1978

Concerns: Coordination of Higher Education

Decree: Ley Reglementaria del Artículo 5 Constitutional (Ley de profesiones)

Concerns: Professions

Decree: Leyes Estatales de Educación Superior

Concerns: Higher Education (State level)

Decree: Leyes Organicas de la Universidades Públicas Autónomas o no Autónomas

Concerns: Autonomous and non-autonomous universities

Decree: Reglamento Interior de la Secretaría de Educación Pública

Concerns: Regulation of the Ministry of Public Education

Academic year:

Classes from: Aug to: Jun

Long vacation from: Jul to: 5 Aug

Languages of instruction: Spanish

Stages of studies:

Non-university level post-secondary studies (technical/vocational type):

Non-university level:

In Bachillerato Tecnológico courses, students are trained for the higher level and for work in different technological branches: Agriculture, Forestry, Industry, Services and Marine Sciences. Studies last for three years. The Colegio Nacional de Educación Profesional Técnica (CONALEP) is a consortium of institutions which trains professional technicians. Studies are propedeutic and terminal. They last for three years.

University level studies:

University level first stage: Licenciatura/Título profesional; Profesor/Maestro; Grado de Técnico Superior Universitario:

The usual entrance qualification is the Bachillerato. In addition, students normally have to take an entrance examination. Courses leading to the Licenciatura normally last for four years, but five years for certain professional qualifications (e.g. Engineer, Dentist, Architect) and six years for Medicine. To obtain the title, students must obtain all the credits in the course, participate in the social service, prepare a thesis and sit for a professional examination. Sometimes, other academic requirements are to be met. In some universities, they do not need to sit for the examination to obtain the title. Technological universities offer two-year full-time courses. They confer the title of Técnico Superior Universitario. To obtain the title, students must be successful in all subjects, participate in the social service and follow a traineeship in the production sector of 13 to 15 weeks.

University level second stage: Maestría or Especialización.:

Students must hold a Licenciatura. Studies leading to the title of Maestro last for two years.

University level third stage: Doctorado:

Students must hold a Licenciatura or a Maestría. Studies last for three years after the Maestría and five years after the Licenciatura and the title of Doctor is conferred on those who have fulfilled the corresponding requirements.

Teacher education:

Training of pre-primary and primary/basic school teachers

Courses leading to a first degree last for four to six years at one of the teacher training colleges (Escuela Normal). Students must hold the Bachillerato. They obtain the title of Licenciado en Educación Preescolar, en Educación Primaria and in Educación Secundaria.

Training of secondary school teachers

Secondary school teachers hold a Licenciatura delivered by a teacher training college or a university. Some teachers qualify through in-service training.

Training of higher education teachers

Since 1970, there have been programmes that train or upgrade teachers. Scholarships are offered to study for a Maestría or a Doctorado. Particularly as from 1996, the Faculty Enhancement Programme (PROMEP) has worked toward the adoption of international standards for the recruitment of academic staff by the HE institutions. After 10 years of operation, the proportion of full time academics in public state universities holding a Licenciatura has decreased from 63% to 28,5% and the number with doctorates has almost tripled from 8% to 22%.

Non-traditional studies:

Distance higher education

Distance higher education is offered in a great many institutions such as the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, the Universidad Pedagógica Nacional, the Instituto Politécnico Nacional and the Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey.

NATIONAL BODIES

Administration & co-ordination:

Responsible authorities:

Secretaría de Educación Pública (SEP) (Ministry of Public Education)

Head: Reyes Tamez Guerra, Secretary

Argentina 28, 2o piso Of.3011
Col. Centro,
Del. Cuauhtémoc
06029 México, D.F.
Mexico

Tel: +52(55) 53296860/ 53296890

Fax: +52(55) 55212095

EMail: educa@sep.gob.mx

WWW: http://www.sep.gob.mx

Asociación Nacional de Universidades e Institutos de Enseñanza Superior (ANUIS)

Head: Rafael López Castañares, Executive Secretary-General

Caixa postal 003310, Tenayuca N. 200, Col. Santa Cruz Atoyac
03310 México, D.F.
Mexico

Tel: +52(55) 5420 4900/ 5420 4901

Fax: +52(55) 5604 3734

EMail: rlc@anuies.mx

WWW: http://www.anuies.mx

Role of governing body: ANUIES is a non-governmental organization that brings together the main institutions of higher education; it has as its mission to promote excellence in teaching, research and the extension of culture and services. It has 138 members, both public and private.

Federación de Institutiones Mexicanas Particulares de Educación Superior (FIMPES)

Head: Francisco Lejarza Gallegos, President

Administrative officer: Diana Cecilia Ortega Amieva, Executive Secretary

Río Guadalquivir #50, 4 Piso
Col. Cuauhtémoc
06500 México
Mexico

Tel: +52(55) 55145514

Fax: +52(55) 52070581

EMail: fimpes@avantel.net

WWW: http://www.fimpes.ur.mx/

Asociación Nacional de Universidades Tecnológicas (ANUT)

Head: David Guerrero Castellón, Executive Secretary

Prisciliano Sánchez Norte #100
Col. Centro
63000 Tepic, Nay
Mexico

Tel: +52(311) 2170505

Fax: +52(55) 52311601

EMail: davidguerrero@tepic.megared.net.mx

ADMISSIONS TO HIGHER EDUCATION

Admission to non university higher education studies

Name of secondary school credential required: Bachillerato Tecnológico

Admission to university-level studies

Name of secondary school credential required: Bachillerato

Minimum score/requirement: 7/8

Foreign students admission

Admission requirements: Students must be in possession of the Bachillerato or its equivalent. For certain universities admission is based on an entrance examination.

Entry regulations: Foreign students must hold a visa which they can obtain from the Mexican consulates (those who have a scholarship from the Government are entitled to an official visa). Courses are offered by certain institutions.

Health requirements: .

Language requirements: Students must have a good knowledge of Spanish.

Recognition of studies & qualifications:

Studies pursued in home country (System of recognition/accreditation): CENEVAL: National Center for the Assessment of Higher Education; CIEES: Inter-institutional committees for the Evaluation of Higher Education (in charge of programme assessments); Ministry of Public Education and National Council of Science and Technology (joint assessment of graduate programmes); Ministry of Public Education and State Governments (recognition of degrees granted by private institutions and those integrated in public universities); COPAES: Consejo Nacional para la Accreditación de la Educación Superior (in charge of recognizing the committees which accredit the programmes).

Studies pursued in foreign countries (bodies dealing with recognition of foreign credentials):

Dirección General de Educación Superior Universitaria

Head: Eugenio Cetina Vadillo

San Fernando No 1
14050 Mexico, D.F.
Mexico

Tel: +52(55) 57236732

Fax: +52(55) 57236733

EMail: ecetina@sep.gob.mx

WWW: http://www.sep.gob.mx

Deals with credential recognition for entry to: University

Dirección General de Profesiones

Head: Victor Everardo Beltran Corona, Director

Insurgentes Sur 2387
01000 México, D.F.
Mexico

Tel: +52(55) 57236641/ 57236600 ext 12407

Fax: +52(55) 57236642

EMail: victorbc@sep.gob.mx

WWW: http://www.sep.gob.mx

Deals with credential recognition for entry to: Profession

Other information sources on recognition of foreign studies: Each institution carries out evaluations.

Multilateral agreements concerning recognition of foreign studies

Name of agreement: Agreement on the Recognition of Studies, Diplomas and Degrees in Higher Education in Latin America and the Caribbean

Year of signature: 1975

Name of agreement: Bilateral Agreements with: France, Italy, Spain, etc.

Name of agreement: Regional Agreement on the Recognition of Studies, Diplomas and Degrees in Higher Education

Year of signature: 1993

References to further information on foreign student admissions and recognition of studies

Title: Catálogo de carreras y posgrados

Author: Asociación Nacional de Universidades e Institutos de Educación Superior

Publisher: ANUIES

STUDENT LIFE

Main student services at national level

Información del Sector Educativo (TELSEP)

San Francisco 1626-9o piso
Col. Del Valle
03100 Mexico, DF
Mexico

Tel: +52(55) 57236688

Category of services provided: Social and welfare services; Academic and career counselling services; Employment services

Services available to foreign Students: Yes

Health/social provisions

Social security for foreign students: Yes

Cost/fee (per year): 14000 (Mexican Peso)

Foreign student social security provisions: Foreign students enjoy the same services as national students: medicine and surgery, hospital and pharmacy services.

Special student travel fares:

By road: Yes

Available to foreign students: Yes

Student expenses and financial aid

Student costs:

Average living costs: 60000 (Mexican Peso)

Home students tuition fees: Minimum: 0 (Mexican Peso)

Maximum: 80000 (Mexican Peso)

Foreign students tuition fees: Minimum: 4000 (Mexican Peso)

Maximum: 200000 (Mexican Peso)

Bodies providing information on student financial aid:

CONACyT

Av. Insurgentes Sur No. 1582 , Col. Crédito Constructor, Del. Benito Juárez
03940 México
Mexico

Tel: (55) 53227700

EMail: comentarios@conacyt.mx

WWW: http://www.conacyt.mx/

Deals with: Grants

Category of students: Graduate Students

Programa Nacional de Becas para la Educación Superior (PRONABES)

TELSEP - San Francisco 1626-9o piso
Col. Del Valle
03100 Mexico, DF
Mexico

Tel: +52(55) 57236688

EMail: pronabes@sep.gob.mx

Deals with: Grants

Secretaría de Relaciones exteriores

CP 06954
Ricardo Flores Magón no 2, Nuevo edificio Ala A, piso 4, Col. Tlatelolco, Deleg. Cuauhtémoc
06954 Mexico, DF
Mexico

Tel: +52(55) 50633000

Fax: +52(55) 57824109

EMail: comentario@sre.gob.mx

WWW: http://www.sre.gob.mx

Deals with: Grants

Category of students: Student exchanges and dissimination of information on scholarships. Information for Mexicans wishing to study abroad and foreign students coming to Mexico.

Publications on student services and financial aid:

Title: Boletín informativo

Publisher: Dirección de Intercambio Académico, UNAM

Title: Manual de Becas para Estudios de Nivel superior

Author: ANUIES

Publisher: UAEM

INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION & EXCHANGES

Principal national bodies responsible for dealing with international cooperation and exchanges in higher education:

Dirección General de Asuntos Culturales, Secretaria de Relaciones Exteriores

Head: Alejandro Estivill Castro, Director General

Av. Paseo de la Reforma #175, Piso 12,
Col. Cuauhtémoc, Deleg. Cuauhtémoc
06500 Mexico, DF
Mexico

Tel: +52(55) 50633000

Fax: +52(55) 52413480

EMail: aestivill@sre.gob.mx

WWW: http://www.sre.gob.mx/acerca/directorio/oficinas/dgasuntosculturales.htm

Participation of country in multilateral or bilateral higher education programmes

Name of exchange programme: Acuerdo ANUIES-CREPUQ (México-Quebec)

Name of exchange programme: Acuerdo ANUIES-DAAD (México-Alemania)

Name of exchange programme: Acuerdo México-Francia para la Cooperación Científica y Técnica

Name of exchange programme: Programa ALBAN (Becas de Alto Nivel-Unión Europea)

Name of exchange programme: Programa de Cooperación Interuniversitaria (España-Iberoamericana)

Name of exchange programme: Programme for North American Mobility in Higher Education

Name of exchange programme: Regional Academic Mobility Programme (RAMP)

GRADING SYSTEM

Usual grading system in secondary school

Full Description: Marking is on a scale of 0-10 (highest), with 6 as the minimum pass mark.

Highest on scale: 10

Pass/fail level: 6

Lowest on scale: 0

Main grading system used by higher education institutions

Full Description: 10: excelente (excellent); 9: muy bien (very good); 8: bien (good); 7: suficiente (pass); 5: reprobado/no suficiente (fail).

Highest on scale: 10

Pass/fail level: 6

Lowest on scale: 0

Other main grading systems

MB (maximum); B; S (minimum pass mark); NA (fail)

NOTES ON HIGHER EDUCATION SYSTEM

Data for academic year: 2005-2006

Source: IAU from Ministry of Public Education, Mexico, 2006

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